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Âû çäåñü: ÑÒÀÒÜÈ / Analytics / Corruption in Kyrgyzstan. Center of Public Opinion Studies and Forecasts (2000)


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Kyrgyzstan Review, 10 years ago




9. CORRUPTION INFLUENCE ON PEOPLE`S CONSCIOUSNESS

    The most dangerous consequence of the corruption is its influence on people’s consciousness. Gradually there are concepts developed in the mass consciousness that the corruption among the government employees – is a conduct norm and that money and contacts may resolve any problem and that to be corrupt and give bribes are not blamable and so on.
 
To see the state of the mass consciousness related to corruption and bribery we tried to find out the respondents` perception of the opposite opinions.
 
Diagram 21.      Agreement and disagreement with opposite opinions
 
Today not a single issue can be resolved without bribing, “I will scratch you back, you will scratch mine”.
 
 
It is impossible to get by in our country without breaking a law
 
 
The majority of problems in daily life can be successfully resolved without bribing the government employees
 
 
People are spoiled by entrusting with  power/authority
 
 
 
 
  •        Do not agree completely and rather disagree    
  •         Fully agree and rather agree   
  •         Difficult to answer
 
Question: Please tell to what extend do you personally agree or disagree with the following different opinions.
 
    It is clear from the diagram that there is a stable negative attitude developed in Kyrgyzstan towards a government employee profile. 81 % of the all respondents are willing to agree that the people are spoiled by entrusting with power/authority.
 
    Nevertheless there people in the republic  (64 %) who believe that “ the majority of problems in daily life can be successfully resolved without bribing the government employees”.
 
    The same percentage of people think that “it is impossible to get by in our country without breaking a law”. 70 % of the respondents “agree” and rather agree” with the fact that today not a single issue can be resolved without bribing, and the saying “I will scratch you back, you will scratch mine” has become a life norm for them.
 
    The population was asked to express their opinion on acceptance and non-acceptance of some ideas. The results are shown in Table 2.
 
    It is pleasant to note that 71 % of the citizens think “on the whole it is not acceptable” not to  pay taxes. The level of acceptance is much lower regarding those ideas where the words “bribe” and “money” are mentioned.  Nowadays it is seen acceptable to “give someone a job with friend’s assistance” avoiding the regular job application procedures  and place a kid at the university, good hospital, relative’s school and to use contacts for job promotion. For doctors and teachers – it is ordinary to accept gifts from patients and schoolchildren’s parents. It has already become a tradition to thank “ the right “ person for an assistance provided or buy a drink or a dinner in the restaurant for a person who helped to resolve a problem. 
 
    Besides, the population think that “it is quite acceptable hand in a bribe taker using a “hot” line to a law-enforcement bodies. Judging from this we can assume that the population can become a good ally in the combat with the corruption and bribery.
 
Table 2.           Permissibility and Reprehensibility of Judgements (%)
 
 
Quite permis-sible
Permis-sible as a whole
Reprehen-sible as a whole
Extremely reprehen-sible
Difficult to answer
To get fixed up a relative, an acquaintance or your acquaintance’s children in a job, in higher institution, in a good hospital or school by protection, by evasion of ordinary procedures
26
27
26
16
5
To use network for the promotion up the scale of ranks
22
29
27
17
5
For a doctor or a teacher – to receive gifts from patients or pupils parents
22
33
24
16
5
To thank a “necessary” person for having done a favour for you (for example, to present flowers, a box of chocolates, a bottle of cognac)
28
43
16
7
5
To pay for joint drinks, or a dinner at a restaurant with a person who can help in solving of your problems
22
39
22
11
6
To bribe a functionary for a positive solution of a problem or acceleration of its solution
14
25
33
22
7
To bribe not for the solution of some personal problem but in the interests of some affair, for one’s organization or company
15
27
30
18
8
To give money for hushing up a business or to avoid some unpleasant investigation or bureaucratic procedures
13
23
31
24
9
To make services  (by evasion of existing state of affairs) in exchange for equal services in another sphere
10
26
32
19
13
Not to pay taxes
8
13
31
40
7
To inform the law enforcement bodies on a bribe-taker over the hot line
24
27
18
15
15
 
Question: What do you consider, as a whole permissible or reprehensible?
 
    Two-third of the respondents are unanimous in that the majority of people bribe with a heavy heart and with enormous inner resistance.
 
    The relative majority 49-54% of respondents denounce corruption. At the same time 36-40 % of participants of the poll are indifferent to corruption and sometimes have to take part i it by themselves., and 1-4 % do not see anything bad in corruption.
 
    The ratio between those who say that a bribe-giver and a bribe-taker are equally dangerous for the society with those who consider that a bribe-taker is more dangerous make up with employees 2.4, with population and businessmen 1.4 each, and with the law enforcement bodies 0.9. That means that the officials of law enforcement bodies are more critical to those who take bribes. At the same time 13 % of population and 17 % of law enforcement officials stand to the opinion that those giving bribes are more dangerous. Only 6 % of employees and 5 % of businessmen agree to this statement.
 
    Thus, the most significant damage from corruption, to our mind, is an indirect damage. Having the influence on people’s consciousness corruption distorts the main conventional morals and ethic standards, that affects negatively on the growing generation. For the present time people participating in bribery do not cause highly negative attitude to them from the society, they are called “practical” people who can solve all the problems. Thus 16 % of respondents would like to bribe themselves to fasten solving of their affairs, and 7 % are not against taking bribe, since everybody does the same. However in spite of the fact that about 40 % of our respondents are indifferent to corruption, the relative majority 49-54 % of respondents denounce corruption. Besides the population consider it “as a whole and quite permissible to inform the law enforcement bodies on a bribe-taker over the hot line”. This fact speaks that the population could become a good ally in the fight against corruption.