Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ / Î ïðîåêòå
Âû çäåñü: ÑÒÀÒÜÈ / Analytics / Corruption in Kyrgyzstan. Center of Public Opinion Studies and Forecasts (2000)


ßíäåêñ öèòèðîâàíèÿ

Kyrgyzstan Review, 10 years ago




7. CORRUPTION IN THE GOVERNMENT BODIES

    Corruption in the government bodies appears when the authority starts contacting with a particular citizen. Interaction between the authority and a citizen appears in two cases.
 
    First one – when the authority is supposed to provide him with certain cervices (provision of permits, licenses, official documents). In these situations the corruption is encouraged by:
 
·           Preserving a wide range of state services related to a permit system;
·           Citizen’s not knowing the rights on receiving the services and duties of the officials on their provision;
·           Hiding information by officials on their duties and the rights of the citizens;
·           Complexity of the bureaucratic procedures;
·           Monopoly of the state departments on providing the services;
·           Structural peculiarities of the government structures, when one department has the authority to make decisions and provide services.
 
    Second case – when the authority, fulfilling its restricting and regulating function, entrusts a citizen with sharing his resources with the state, charging obligatory payments or taxes for breaking the regulations. In these situations the corruption is encouraged by absence of citizen duties implementation procedures as well as by inconsistency of fines encouraging non-paying the fines through bribing.
 
    We tried to find out what is the role of the government bodies in relation to corruption. It turned out that the majority of the businessmen, government employees and ordinary people unanimously believe that the government bodies deliberately “put up with the corruption” (37 %). The opposite opinion has been only expressed by the law-enforcement bodies` officials. 41 % of them think that government bodies combat the corruption.
 
    Moreover, 28 % of the businessmen think that government bodies “organize corruption” themselves. This opinion is expressed by 24 % of the government government employees, 14 % of the population and 21 % by law-enforcement officials.
 
    In order to see if our respondents believe that justice can be obtained in Kyrgyzstan we asked them the following question: “If the government bodies took a unfair decision on some issue related to you, would it be possible to in your opinion to re-enforce justice and to reverse such a decision?”.
 
    Law-enforcement representatives by virtue of law  believe in that more then other respondent categories. The relative majority (35%) of the law-enforcement bodies believe that one has to address the upper level authority in order to re-establish justice. People tend less to address the courts (28 %), at the same time one fifths of the population does not see any possibility to change the situation. Quite the opposite opinion belongs to government employees and businessmen. 22 % of the businessmen and 23% of the government employees prefer to address the powerful friends to abolish an unfair decision. One third of the businessmen do not see any chances to change the situation.
 
    These percentage ratios clearly reflect the reality. The law-enforcement bodies` representatives widely appeal to laws, regulations and procedures and thus prefer to address the courts or the higher bodies. The regular population also addresses the courts but at the same time does not believe that in the triumph of justice.
 
    There is another pattern of the government employees who using their status and contacts prefer to address their influential friends and acquaintances to re-establish justice.  22 % of the businessmen also prefer to address the influential friends and acquaintances.
 
    The answers of our respondents demonstrate that the citizens themselves encourage spreading the corruption horizontally and vertically as well as encourage the coverage of the new structures and spheres of influence. This threatens the country’s integrity and preservation of its constitutional order. Thus the corruption turns into a problem threatening the national security of the country.
 
    In which government bodies does corruption spread most of all? The respondents` opinions about the corruption and bribery expansion in various organizations are shown in Diagrams 15, 16, 17 and 18.
 
Diagram 15.    Corruption and bribery expansion in various organizations (opinion of the population)
 
 
Police, internal affairs bodies
 
 
Courts, prosecutor office
 
 
Highway police
 
 
Customs
 
 
Higher education institutions
 
 
Taxation office
 
 
Military registration and enlistment office
 
 
Ministry of finance
 
 
Hospitals, health administration
 
 
State Investment Committee/Privatization
 
 
Large-scale companies, banks
 
 
Ministry of national security, security bodies
 
 
Administration in your raion (district), city
 
 
Administration in your oblast (region)
 
 
Ministry of Justice
 
 
Cabinet of Ministers
 
 
Military units
 
 
President administration
 
 
Jogorku Kenesh (Kyrgyz Parliament)
 
 
Industrial enterprises
 
 
TV, news papers, radio
 
 
Schools
 
 
 
%
 
  •               Quite and widely spread
 
Question: To what extend in your opinion does the corruption and bribery spread out among the following organizations?
 
Diagram 16.    Corruption and bribery expansion in various organizations (opinion of the government employees)
 
 
Police, internal affairs bodies
 
 
Highway police
 
 
Customs
 
 
Taxation office
 
 
Courts, prosecutor office
 
 
Higher education institutions
 
 
Hospitals, health administration
 
 
State Investment Committee/Privatization
 
 
Ministry of  Finance
 
 
Military registration and enlistment office
 
 
Jogorku Kenesh (Kyrgyz Parliament)
 
 
Large-scale companies, banks
 
 
Cabinet of Ministers
 
 
Administration in your raion (district), city
 
 
Ministry of Justice
 
 
Ministry of national security, security bodies
 
 
Administration in your oblast (region)
 
 
TV, news papers, radio
 
 
Military units
 
 
President administration
 
 
Schools
 
 
Industrial enterprises
 
 
 
                                 %
 
  •               Quite and widely spread
 
Question: To what extend in your opinion does the corruption and bribery spread out among the following organizations?
 
Diagram 17.    Corruption and bribery expansion in various organizations (opinion of the law-enforcement bodies officials)
 
 
Taxation office
 
 
Customs
 
 
Highway police
 
 
Ministry of finance
 
 
Police, internal affairs bodies
 
 
Cabinet of Ministers
 
 
State Investment Committee/Privatization
 
 
Courts, prosecutor office
 
 
President administration
 
 
Higher education institutions
 
 
Administration in your raion (district), city
 
 
Jogorku Kenesh (Kyrgyz Parliament)
 
 
Military registration and enlistment office
 
 
Large-scale companies, banks
 
 
Ministry of national security, security bodies
 
 
Hospitals, health administration
 
 
Administration in your oblast (region)
 
 
Ministry of Justice
 
 
TV, news papers, radio
 
 
Military units
 
 
Industrial enterprises
 
 
Schools
 
 
 
                                %
 
  •               Quite and widely spread
 
Question: To what extend in your opinion does the corruption and bribery spread out among the following organizations?
 
Diagram 18.    Corruption and bribery expansion in various organizations (opinion of the businessmen)
 
 
Police, internal affairs bodies
 
 
Taxation office
 
 
Customs
 
 
Highway police
 
 
Courts, prosecutor office
 
 
Ministry of finance
 
 
State Investment Committee/Privatization
 
 
Higher education institutions
 
 
Military registration and enlistment office
 
 
Administration in your raion (district), city
 
 
Administration in your oblast (region)
 
 
Cabinet of Ministers
 
 
Large-scale companies, banks
 
 
Ministry of national security, security bodies
 
 
Ministry of Justice
 
 
President administration
 
 
Jogorku Kenesh (Kyrgyz Parliament)
 
 
Hospitals, health administration
 
 
Military units
 
 
TV, news papers, radio
 
 
Schools
 
 
Industrial enterprises
 
 
 
                                    %
 
  •               Quite and widely spread
 
Question: To what extend in your opinion does the corruption and bribery spread out among the following organizations?
 
    The answers of our respondents turned out to be almost identical. (except the answers of the law-enforcement officials). Corruption and bribery are mostly spread out in police and internal affairs bodies (86-92 % of the respondents), highway police (81-91 % of the respondents), customs (68-89 %), courts and prosecutor office (82-86 %), higher education institutions (63-79 %) in Kyrgyzstan. The least corrupt structures are industrial enterprises, schools and mass media. 
 
    The proposed diagrams are very interesting for an analysis. Looking at them one can see that government employees and law-enforcement bodies` officials tend to underestimate corruption in their structures and speak with a great pleasure about corruption in those structures that they have to deal with in the working process.
 
    For example, despite the fact that all the survey participants unanimously call the police and internal affairs bodies the most corrupt state structures of Kyrgyzstan, the law-enforcement bodies` representatives themselves think that their organizations occupy the fifths position after taxation office, customs, highway police and Ministry of Finance according to the corruption spread.  More detailed analysis of the answers of the respondents from the law-enforcement bodies allows to reveal the corruption links between the law-enforcement bodies and the ministry of Finance, Cabinet of Ministers, President Administration, Jogorku Kenesh (Kyrgyz Parliament). These very structures were called the most corrupt ones by the law-enforcement bodies. Thus 67 % of the law-enforcement bodies` representatives pointed out that the corruption in the President Administration is “quite and widely spread”, meantime the percentage among government employees constitutes 37 %, businessmen – 53 %, population – 47 %. One can suppose that while considering different offences, the law-enforcement bodies are experienced the pressure from the President Administration and lead the representatives of the law-enforcement bodies to an idea about the corruption of the above-mentioned structure.
 
    Corruption penetration in enforcement bodies and most of all in law-enforcement bodies (here we refer to Ministry of Internal Affairs, courts, prosecutor offices) is extremely dangerous for the society. It can result in merging corrupt elements of the government and economic crime and create:
 
·           “complex teams” making money on criminal cases` breakdown.
·           through bribery law-enforcement bodies` pressure on competitors in business. The same means can be used for blackmail.
·           The situation when law-enforcement bodies` representatives may go to work part time in commercial structures.
 
    The surveys that have been conducted within the last two years by the Center of  Public Opinion Analysis and Forecast show that the public opinion of  Kyrgyz citizens develops a strongly negative attitude towards such an important state structure as the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
 
It causes alarm that two third of the adult population of Kyrgyzstan do not trust the police. Four fifths (78 %) of our compatriots called “lack of protection, cruelty and impunity of the law-enforcement bodies” as one of the most important problems of the country.
 
Survey “Kyrgyzstan 2000: View of a voter” UNDP, Central Election Committee.
 
    We tried to find out how the population sees the profile of an ordinary policeman. It turned out that businessmen and government employees have more negative attitude towards policemen then ordinary citizens of the country. Quite critical is the opinion even of the colleagues working in law-enforcement bodies. “Rude” – is the most used property expressed by the all interviewed groups. 19 % of the government employees< 18 % of the businessmen< 15-16 % of the population and law-enforcement bodies` representatives put this on the first position. “Dishonest” and “uncultured” are the properties assigned to a policeman profile by 34% (17% + 17%) of the government employees, 29 % of the businessmen and 23 % of the regular citizens of the country. “Indifferent” and “cowardly” are properties occupying the next positions in the profile. On diagram 19 one can see the ratio between positive and negative properties seen by the population in the policeman’s profile.
 
Diagram 19.    The ratio between positive and negative properties seen by the population in the policeman’s profile.
 
  • Positive properties        
  •    Negative properties
 
    So, the government corruption exists only due to the fact that a government official has the possibility to dispose the resources that do not belong to him through taking (or not-taking) various decisions. Those resources include: budget allocations, state and municipal property, state purchasing orders or benefits and so on.
 
    A government official is supposed to take decisions within his competence and directed by the objectives assigned by the law (Constitution, regulations and other acts) and publicly approved moral and ethic and cultural norms.
 
    The corruption starts where these objectives are substituted by selfish official’s interests implemented in real actions.
 
    In the public opinion of the Kyrgyz citizens there is a trend of developing such an opinion that government bodies deliberately “put up with corruption”. Some citizen tend to believe that the government bodies “organize corruption” themselves. Bribery became a regular phenomenon for the government officials – is the opinion of 80 % of the country citizens. (Kyrgyzstan 2000: View of a Voter. UNDP and Central Election Committee.) The most corrupt structure is the police and internal affairs bodies. In these conditions is it seen pointless to create the Department on Combating Organized Crime within the most corrupt structure. The Department on Combating Organized Crime should be  at least independent and be attached to Jogorky Kenesh (Kyrgyz Parliament) of the Kyrgyz Republic which is most transparent. At the highest government level there is a need for urgent actions to restore the image of a civil servant and restore trust and respect towards government structures.