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: / Analytics / Corruption in Kyrgyzstan. Center of Public Opinion Studies and Forecasts (2000)




Kyrgyzstan Review, 10 years ago




6. SCALES OF CORRUPTION AND BRIBE-TAKING

Relative majority of all participants consider that corruption in Kyrgyzstan has the same scales like in the majority of other countries.
 
Figure 11. Scale of corruption
 
Question: What do you think about the place of Kyrgyzstan in terms of corruption scales? 
 
However, it is worth to note that among population the difference between those, who think that corruption in Kyrgyzstan is of the same scale like in the majority of countries and those, who think that Kyrgyzstan is one of the most corrupted countries comprises only 7%. For comparison, the same difference in the group of office workers has been 45%, in group of businessmen - 27%, in group of law-enforcement bodies - 23%.
 
The overwhelming majority of responders (law-enforcement bodies - 83%, businessmen - 81%, office workers - 76% , population - 70%) consider that corruption is the most acute problem in Kyrgyzstan, and they are very much concerned about solution of this problem.
 
Deterioration of economic conditions, weakness of authorities and failure of Soviet Party control promoted growth of corruption in Kyrgyzstan. 74% of all participants of the poll consider that in comparison with Soviet period current level of corruption is higher. 15% responders consider that extend of corruption is approximately the same, and only 4% of our country-mates has answered that corruption is lower nowadays.

Figure 12. Level of corruption in comparison with Sovietperiod
 
Question: In comparison with Soviet period of corruption has the corruption increased, decreased or approximately the same?
 
Moreover two fifth (44%) of Kyrgyz citizens were told by acquaintances about how they participated in bribery of officials, and 12% of our country-mates encountered themselves with extortion of bribes.
 
Businessmen and office workers, due to their activities, more often than the ordinary citizens encounter notions of corruption and bribe-taking. It is proved by the table 1. As shown in the table adduced, almost all businessmen and official workers, who had to turn in military registration and enlistment office concerning conscription to army, stay in hospital, to be instituted criminal proceedings or be under the investigation, pass customs procedures, break traffic rules and be arrested by policemen, either gave bribes themselves or were extorted.
 
The difference among answers of businessmen and office-workers on the side of less quantity of responders-office workers, giving bribes in the same situations businessmen have had, is explained, most probably, by the fact that selection of office workers has included only workers of ministries, who manage lower structures. That is why, it is considered that this category of citizens has solved the problems appeared not only with a help of bribes, but office calls and mutual services.
 

Table 1. Cases of bribing incidence
 
During last 3 years you bribed (you were extorted), when you had:
businessmen
(%)
Office workers
(%)
To get fixed up in a job
63
40
 
To enroll your child in school
58
50
 
To enter university
 
85
73
To be in hospital
82
75
To turn in military registration and enlistment office concerning conscription in army
100
70
To make answer/ be under the investigation
 
100
 
100
To obtain flat
58
59
To get registration/residence permission
 
67
53
To get permission on land buying/building
77
73
To register firm/get or prolong permission on firm activities
46
88
To get order on implementation of any projects for governmental or municipal bodies
69
57
To get order on implementation of any works for commercial firms
70
75
To pay taxes of private firm/submit tax declaration
44
70
To pass customs procedures
97
88
To get driving license/register automobile/conduct its technical examination
66
81
To break traffic rules and be arrested by policemen
100
100
 
In order to realize scales of corruption, we decided to analyze, what part of earnings businessmen pay as bribes. About half of (45%) businessmen refused to answer that question, that witnessed fear or conviction in uselessness of discussing openly that topic.
 
The figure below demonstrates extend of corruption payments from all earnings of businessmen, and percentage of businessmen, who make corresponding payments.
 

Figure 13. Volume of corruption payments by businessmen
 
Question: What part of entrepreneurs earnings, in your opinion, is sent on corruption payments in Kyrgyzstan?
 
As shown in the above-presented figure, mainly volume of corruption payments comprises 10-30% from the earnings of private entrepreneurs. 40% of businessmen pay such amount of money. 16% of entrepreneurs give 30-40% of their earnings as corruption payments, and 50-60% of earnings are given by every ten entrepreneur of Kyrgyzstan.
 
Whom bribes are paid often to? According to opinion of one half of businessmen and office workers, bribes are often taken by managers of governmental institutions, 22% consider that bribes are often taken by officials of medium level, 5%- junior personnel. 17% of responders had difficulties to answer that question.
 
According to the opinion of population and businessmen the main factor, which causes officials to take bribes is the fact that bribe-taking is practically unpunished (in average 21,5%). Office workers and law-enforcement workers follow another point of view they say that officials have to take bribes, because they have low salaries (22% and 30% correspondingly).
 
Figure 14. Corruption in different levels of governmental officials.
 
Question: Who to your point of view often takes bribes?
 
Thus, it can be said that corruption in Kyrgyzstan has tendency to grow, but the majority of citizens consider that scale of corruption in the country is the same like in other states. Each fifth considers that Kyrgyzstan is one of the most corrupted countries. Businessmen and office workers more often than ordinary citizens encounter corruption. The main volume of corruption payments comprises 10-30% of earnings of private entrepreneurs. Extortion of officials in customs, military registration and enlistment office, requisitions in hospitals, universities and bodies of internal affaires, police have acquired almost total practice. The main bribe-takers are managers of state structures and officials of medium level. Population considers that officials take bribes because they are confident in their impunity. While officials justify themselves with the fact that they have low salaries.