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: / Analytics / Corruption in Kyrgyzstan. Center of Public Opinion Studies and Forecasts (2000)




Kyrgyzstan Review, 10 years ago




FOREWORD

Contemporaneous period of development of Kyrgyzstan is characterized by the diversity of problems, which require increased attention and effective solution. As one of such problems, the problem of corruption raises, and it presents serious threat to normal functioning of political and economic institutions not only at the level of the state, but at the level of interaction with other countries. Corruption is also dangerous due to the ability to cause recession of trade relations, volume of investments. It leads through lobbying of individual interests in the policy of government to the decrease of responsibility, accountability of authoritative bodies, reduces financing of key directions of the governmental activities. But, first of all, poor people suffer from corruption very much. Indicators of combined social expenses do not reflect those sufferings, which are caused by corruption to ordinary citizens.
 
Ultimately, corruption conduced to formation of society, which is not able to live in conditions of democratic form of government due to its internal weakness. Corruption has a tendency, in case of appropriate counteraction, to develop into transnational and become the problem not only one state, but all mankind.
 
In this connection, studying of the Corruption Problem in Kyrgyzstan is important and well-timed step, initiated by the Department for Organizational Crime and Gangsterism Prevention, in the framework of UNDP Project in Kyrgyzstan Crime-prevention.
 
Executor of that investigation was independent non-governmental organization Center for Public Opinion Studies and Forecasts. Our goals included investigation of corruption through studying of opinion of population of Kyrgyzstan. During conduction of investigation we cooperated with the Center for Transnational Crime and Corruption Studies under the American University (Washington, USA), Vladivostok and Ural Centers for Organizational Crime and Corruption Studies, Russian-wide Center for Public Opinion Studies (RCOS), Department of sociology and political analysis of the Business and Market Economy Development Assistance Foundation (Azerbaijan), we studied materials of different international seminars on problems of corruption (National anticorruption seminar / 24-25th of May 2000, Moscow/, Russia and world experience on counteraction to corruption / 23-24th of June 1999).
 
The most compound stage in the investigation was field stage: we studied the following groups:
- population of Kyrgyzstan
- white-collar workers
- businessmen
- representatives of law-enforcement agencies.
 
It was pleasant and astonishing to come across with responsiveness, understanding and interest to the problem of corruption on the side of ordinary citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic.
 
I am glad to hear that even such work on corruption is conducted, probably the ice has begun to break. I hope that there will be brought an order in the question of corruption, and ordinary people will not suffer so greatly from bribe-takers.
Woman, 47 years, Chui oblast
 
High interest to the investigation of corruption was shown by the representatives of large-scale and medium-scale business.
 
Overwhelming majority of deputies of Jogorku Kenesh, office workers of the President Administration and the Government, inspite of being busy and huge programme of work had found time to answer the questions of our questionnaire.
 
Some managers of enterprises and firms were thankful for the matter that such questions like corruption, bribe-taking are tackled, and at least, somebody works on investigation of so important problems for our society
A. Imanalieva, from the report of interviewer
 
In contradistinction to population, managers of all Ministries, except Ministry of External Trade and Industry, Ministry of Environment Protection, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications, stood in the way of conduction of investigation in every way possible.
 
Inspite of written and verbal appeals of the Personnel of Prime-Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Internal Affairs became unattainable suddenly. About two months there were undertaken different steps to get access for interviewers in the structures of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The investigation was under the threat of break-down. Only thanks to persistence and stubbornness of the Personnel of Prime-Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic and our Center, the governing body of the Ministry of Internal Affairs permitted the conduction of questioning in its structures.
 
Attitude of law-enforcement workers to the investigation conducted was different: in some courts our work was welcomed, in another our coworkers were driven out and threatened by making answerable. Unfortunately, only the governing body of Sverdlov raion court with no fear to be made answer and no waiting for the instruction from the top gave its permission on conduction of investigation. This solitary instance has given us already the hope that courts of Kyrgyzstan will acquire real independence.
 
Among raion governmental administrations of Bishkek investigation went on especially difficult in Sverdlov administration and town council of Bishkek.
 
Resistance of office workers to the investigation of corruption is understandable, because namely in the depths of governmental structures corruption arises and develops.
 
We would like to acknowledge the Head of Personnel of Prime-Minister, Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic, R.B. Eshmambetov for his thorough assistance to our investigation. Without his participation this investigation could not take place.
 
We would like to acknowledge Secretary of the Security Board of the Kyrgyz Republic, B. Djanuzakov for understanding, support and real help in conduction of investigation.
 
Special thanks we would like to express to the Speaker of Legislative Board of Jogorku Kenesh, O. Tekebaev, with assistance of whom there has been conducted investigation among the most enlightened part of our society deputies of Jogorku Kenesh.
 
Also we would like express our deep gratitude to the Head of Press-Service of the Personnel of Prime-Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic, F. Niyazov, temporary Chairman of the Supreme Court of the Kyrgyz Republic, J. Dosmatov, Director of Judicial Department of the Kyrgyz Republic, K. Duisheev, Public Prosecutor of Bishkek city, T.Albanov, Head of Department on control for economic transgressions and corruption investigation of the Office of Public Prosecutor of Bishkek city, E. Alymov and Deputy Head of the Department of Internal Affairs of Bishkek city, T. Subanov.
 
Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all participants of our investigation for sincere answers and kind wishes.
 
Bishkek, 2000