¬Ż ÁšŚŮŁ: —“ņ“‹» / Strategies / National Poverty Reduction Strategy (2003-2005)


Kyrgyzstan Review, 10 years ago


647.†††† The problem of poverty is of national importance.† Its solution is possible only on the basis of well-directed efforts by the State, society and each citizen of Kyrgyzstan.† Support and assistance provided by the international community is of vital importance when fighting poverty.†† The process of preparation and implementation of the CDF and the NPRS is a unique experience for Kyrgyzstan.† Attainment of these programsí goals requires a constructive dialogue and partnership interaction of all branches of government, civil society and the private sector with the support of the donorsí community.†
††††††††††† The major goal of the participatory process in preparation and implementation of the CDF/NPRS formulated in their initial stages back in 1999, is consolidation of the efforts of government and non-government structures and international organizations directed at the gradual reduction of poverty together with sustainable economic growth, based on a consensus for active and constructive partnership and cooperation. 
648.†††† Effective forms of partnership and participation, mechanisms and methods, have been developed in the Kyrgyz Republic within the CDF/NPRS.† The most effective forms include:

-†††††††† National forums and national meetings, peopleís conventions (kurultai), round tables with participation of representatives of all branches of government, NGOs, private sector, international organizations, where the problems of the national level are discussed, and the planned policy measures in various directions for national development are considered.

-†††††††† Regional forums, kurultais, village meetings, meetings of local communities that consider the problems of regions and local communities.

-†††††††† Educational seminars, training activities, meetings conducted in all regions with participation of representatives of state administrative structures and NGOs and their associations, where specific sector, regional problems are discussed and measures for their solution are developed; such activities also promote growth of the participantsí professional potential.

-†††††††† Establishment of councils under the President, Prime Minister, Government of the Kyrgyz Republic and various state administration bodies on priority directions of comprehensive development.†

In the process of preparation and implementation of the CDF/NPRS the following have been the most effective mechanisms and methods of partnership and participation in Kyrgyzstan:

-†††††††† Participation of representative of state administration structures, NGOs and the private sector in working expertsí groups on preparation of the full version of the NPRS both at the national and regional levels.

-†††††††† Participation of non-government organization in drafting of laws and regulations connected with implementation of integrated reforms in the state and the society.

-†††††††† Conducting research, studies, reviews and surveys on major directions of the CDF/NPRS jointly with government structures, as well as independently, that have served as a basis for preparation of proposals and policy measures.

-††††††† Participation in monitoring and evaluation of the results of implementation of the CDF/NPRS.

-†††††††† Development and implementation of specific projects related to poverty reduction, human development, carried out on a grant basis with the support of international organizations.

-†††††††† Active participation of NGOs, private sector in social mobilization of citizens, establishment of associations, self-help groups, charitable acts aimed at poverty reduction, support for the needy and creation of conditions for development.

-†††††††† Conducting various events with the participation of schoolchildren, university students and scientists to study the problems related to the CDF/ NPRS.

-††††††† Conducting of creative events to propagate the ideas of sustainable human development and cover the progress of preparation and implementation of the CDF/NPRS with participation of mass media, etc.††

649.†††† The institutional structure for preparation and implementation of the CDF/NPRS has been formed.† The National Council on CDF Implementation has been established which has large capacities and is headed by the President of the Kyrgyz Republic.† The National CDF Coordinator has been approved by the Decree of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic; the CDF Secretariat, acting as a working group of the National Council has been established within the Administration of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic.† At the same time, these structures work on the issues connected with coordination of further work of the NPRS and its further implementation.†
††††††††††† In January of 2002, the National Council on CDF Implementation approved the general methodology and principles of preparation of a full version of the interim three-year NPRS.† The methodology based on the use of new information technologies ensured complete transparency of the NPRS preparation and implementation, control over its execution, have been widely presented several times to representatives of all state administration bodies, NGOs, private sector, regions, international organizations.† The methodology used is the basis for an effective process of partnership and participation.† The comprehensive development methodology has been also presented to the President of the World Bank, Mr. James Wolfensohn during his visit to the Kyrgyz Republic and has been fully supported by him.
650.†††† To ensure continuous work on preparation and further implementation of the full version of the NPRS and the CDF, coordination committees have been established by Decrees of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic as follows:

-†††††††† Sustainable Economic Growth, headed by the Prime Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic.

-†††††††† Social Protection and Human Development, headed by the first vice Prime Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic.

-†††††††† Improvement of Public Governance Efficiency and Transparency, headed by the head of the Administration of the president of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Twenty three working expertsí groups have been formed within each of the coordination committees.† Regional councils have been established in all oblasts and Bishkek city, including working expertsí groups that work on these directions.† These collegiate coordination and working bodies and expertsí groups include representatives of all branches of government and the civil society, NGOs and the private sector, prominent scientists and public figures.†
651.†††† All sections of the interim and full versions of the NSSP have been developed in close consultations of the working expertsí groups, other additionally invited experts.† Specifically organized round tables, meetings and seminars have been conducted practically on all directions of the work, where corresponding sections of the NPRS have been discussed in detail.† All preliminary versions of the document, working and methodological materials, information on the process of the document discussions and other measures conducted in relation to preparation of the documents and implementation of the CDF, monitoring results, analytical materials are regularly published in the official CDF/NPRS website created with the financial support of the World Bank, as well as on other websites.† To ensure better transparency and effectiveness of partnership participation in preparation and implementation of the NPRS, certain work is being carried out in all the regions on establishment of public computer centers with an access to the official CDF/NPRS website, the information placed in it.† For these purposes it is planned to use the capacities of the public information network, local networks established in ministries, departments, organizations, as well as, upon agreement, with the private sector, universities, etc.† Establishment of the centers with public access will allow to significantly improve feedback effectiveness, to take into account the specifics of regions and local communities more fully.
†652.††† While preparing the various sections of the full version of the NPRS, the working expertsí groups, the CDF Secretariat held close consultations with representatives and missions of international organizations and donor countries, which were of a constructive partnership nature and very useful for development of policy measures.† The Secretariat also used surveys and reports on various aspects of the NPRS and the CDF prepared by foreign experts and missions of international organizations as technical assistance to the Kyrgyz Republic and support for the conducted reforms.† This has allowed better use of positive experience of poverty alleviation accumulated in various countries, as well as improved substantiation of the planned measures.
653.†††† A series of round tables has been conducted in all oblasts of the Republic with the purpose of identifying the inputs of the civil society in the process of implementation of the NPRS and the CDF.† Representatives of the civil society proposed their own forms and mechanisms of participation in implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the NPRS and the CDF.† Representatives of the civil society see their participation as that of informing the population of the progress of implementation of the NPRS and the CDF, of defining the needs of the population, of strengthening the democratic foundation of the society and of building of a lawful state, by promoting development of education, science, healthcare, employment, agriculture, micro-financing, small and medium-scale business, in support of socially vulnerable and poorest layers of the population, as well as in the solution of environmental problems.† In addition, they proposed their assistance in joint planning and implementation of programs and projects at the level of local administrations and in preparation of the budget, as well as expressed their great interest in joint monitoring and evaluation of the results of implementation of the NPRS and the CDF.† Based on the results of the process of participation and partnership of all layers of the society, the Plan of Partnership has been prepared, which describes in detail the process of participation of various structures in development of the NPRS and the CDF, as well as forms and mechanisms of stakeholdersí participation in implementation and monitoring of the program that have been proposed on the basis of the round tables conducted with participation of the civil society.†
654.†††† The Matrix of Partnership (see Appendix G) has been prepared to identify the basis for future partnership of all structures in implementation of the NPRS and the CDF; it envisages the following areas of partnership and participation:

- dissemination of information;

- conducting of regular consultations and discussions;

- broad involvement of all structures in implementation, monitoring and evaluation;

- ensuring of transparency and accountability;

-†increasing of responsibilities of concerned structures;

- stakeholdersí capacity building;

- developing and strengthening of the ownership feeling towards the programs;

- reaching of a consensus among the society; and

- orientation to the result attaining.

†††††††††††† The Matrix of Partnership will be used at all stages of the NPRS implementation as a basic document for planning of joint measures of government bodies, NGOs and the private sector.†
655.†††† NGOs and the private sector can make a large contribution in development at the level of local communities.† Patterns of constructive interaction of the society, NGOs and the authorities have become well-established in the process of implementation of projects on water supply, rehabilitation of social-and-cultural objects, social mobilization, etc.† Engagement of the community in management is deep rooted in local traditions of the Kyrgyz Republic.† The use of this experience will help to establish modern forms and methods of participation of the community in development of territories and control over activities of local authorities, for example, on the basis of tripartite commissions, which include representatives of local authorities, aksakals (old men) and NGOs.†
656.†††† Within the framework of implementation of the NPRS, one of the tasks to be solved with the help of NGOs, is the broadening of feedback between state administrative bodies and the society by the information support to the NPRS conducting public relations campaigns to explain and popularize the contents of the document among the population.† NGOs will inform the community of the attained results, participate in the NPRS monitoring and evaluation, study public opinions on existing problems for the purpose of further introduction of relevant amendments to the program.† NGOs have accumulated significant experience and can conduct successfully regional (oblast), city, rayon informational and consultative meetings with representatives of all participants of the NPRS implementation process.
657.†††† NGOs will promote the support of socially vulnerable layers of the society by:
-†††††††† participating in surveys with involvement of the poorest and poor layers of the population in the research process to jointly reveal socially vulnerable layers in order to support them with targeted social assistance;
-††††††† conducting PR campaigns to draw the attention of the wider public and the Government to the existing problems of socially vulnerable layers of the population;
-†††††††† supporting the priorities of gender equality through participation of womenís NGOs;
-†††††††† integrating invalids into the society by establishing public employment centers and rehabilitation centers for invalids;
-†††††††† promoting interests of socially vulnerable layers of the population by drafting and proposing amendments to the existing legislation and bylaws on pension security, on the methodology of† identification of the needy citizens, on targeted social protection; and
-†††††††† participating in the process of monitoring of humanitarian aid allocation with participation of representatives of all sectors of the civil society.†
658.†††† Experience of NGOs will be useful when solving social and economic problems on the local level, by providing consultative services, joint planning and implementation of partnership projects with local administration bodies, including social mobilization of local communities with attraction of local and external resources.
659.†††† Strengthening of democratic principles and building a lawful society is one of the priority activities of NGOs, expressed in their participation in the following areas:
-†††††††† improvement of the legal competence of the population by conducting round tables, workshops, educational projects and programs upgrading civil education of the population;
-†††††††† establishment of public legal advice centers;
-††††††† introduction in practice public discussions of draft laws related to major aspects of vital activities of the population, participation of NGO representatives in sessions of the Jogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic when these draft laws are to be discussed and approved; and
-†††††††† improvement of public and state mechanisms of realization of human rights and freedoms by their joint evaluation.
660.†††† Within the framework of such strategic directions of the NPRS as introduction of public control over activities of state administration and local self-government bodies and involvement of the civil society in decision-making processes, NGOs will participate in conducting public budget hearings on a regular basis with participation of all sectors of the community and, subsequently, in ensuring public control over budget expenditures in accordance with the earlier approved budget, by participating in activities of auditing committees and other anti-corruption measures.
661.†††† NGOs play an important role in the decentralization process participating in monitoring over transparency of elections to local self-government bodies.† This work can be done by establishing public watch committees with participation of NGOs, which will conduct surveys to assess the performance of government bodies for the purposes to further improve their work.†
662.†††† NGOs will make a contribution in dissemination of positive micro-financing experience by providing consultations to citizens, representatives of individual and small-scale businesses on financial issues, supporting self-help groups and credit unions.
663.†††††††† The role of NGOs in the healthcare sector is to ensure access by the population to high-quality free primary medical services by monitoring allocation of the resources from the Fund of Mandatory Medical Insurance and monitoring the process of providing free medical services for the purpose to reveal its qualitative level, by developing partnership relations between state healthcare establishments and NGOs working in the sphere of healthcare and protecting patientsí interests, participating in the process of law drafting on healthcare issues, as well as joint projects in the area of sanitation and hygiene.
664.†††††††† In the area of ecology and environment protection NGOs will participate in ensuring long-term ecological sustainability by establishing a national system of ecological monitoring, promotion of effective protection of environment, conducting explanatory work among the population, participation in implementation and evaluation of environmental projects on biodiversity conservation, production and export of ecologically pure products, as well as organization of PR campaigns among the population and government structures on advantages of the use of alternative energy sources.
665.†††††††† Participation of NGOs in solution of agricultural problems is expressed in promotion and protection of farmersí interests through establishment and development of public associations in the agricultural sector, promotion of efficiency of agricultural production and product processing by improving the legal framework of market reforms, organization of trainings for farmers and provision of consultative services with participation of all concerned institutions of the society.
666.†††††††† Public employment centers and new jobs are planned to be created in cooperation with the private and public sector through elaboration of projects on development of income-generating activities.
667.†††††††† ††State administration bodies and the civil society have to take joint efforts to create such a social and political climate, where the advantages of the policy aimed at protection of interests of the poor will be recognized by the whole society.† Institutional reforms of state administrative bodies shall ensure transparency and accountability of these institutions to the community.† This is connected with providing the society with more complete information necessary for monitoring and evaluation of activities of state administration agencies.† The policy of transparency of state administration bodies, NGOs and the private sector work will be strengthened.
668.†††††††† Regular NPRS progress reports will be published in the media.† The most successful practices of poverty reduction will be widely disseminated through an information campaign.
††††††††††††††† Broad civil liberties, cooperation among all sectors of the society, independent press and a strong civil society are fundamental conditions for successful implementation of the National Strategy for Poverty Reduction.† Drawing attention the plight of the poor and the poorest layers of the population, and promoting open discussion of related problems, press and the civil society in a close cooperation with the State develop socially acceptable ways to fight poverty.